HTML Lesson 2
Click here for Formatting Images
Cick here for Linking
Formatting text allows you to change the text on your page to your
preference. When you are formatting the text you are formatting the words
or letters rather than formatting the paragraph. The most commonly used
text formatting tags are:
<B> Bold which would be coded as <P><B>This will produce a bold
This will produce a bold type print
<I> Italic which would be coded as <P><I>This will produce a italic
This will produce a italic type print
<U> Underline which would be coded as <P><U>This will produce a
This will produce a underlined text
Other less common tags are as follows. Some of them have
been deprecated by HTML 4.01 standard.
<BLINK> produces blinking text and is considered highly
<CITE> is used to display program code
<EM> usually appears as an italicized text
<STRIKE> will add a strikethrough to the text
<STRONG> this will usually display as bold print
<SUB> subscript text
<SUP> superscript text
<TT> fixed width font
<VAR> for displaying variables and arguments
Font Styles and Sizes
The tag for your font styles and sizes is start <FONT> and
end </FONT>. This tag allows you to determine the color, style and size of
your text. The attributes for the Font tag are as follows:
||Text size ranges from 1 to 7, with 1 being the
smallest and 7 being the largest. The size of the font on a page can be determined in
You can add the <BASEFONT> tag to the header of the
document, which is between the <HEAD> and </HEAD> tags.
This will produce a default font size for the entire document. The <BASEFONT>
tag is not a required tag and if you don't use it the page will
default to the web browser's default font size. The tag would be
written as follows <BASEFONT SIZE=3> any number from 1 to 7 can
replace the 3. The most common default size is 3 for most web
Or you can use the <FONT> tag which can be coded in two
different ways. The <FONT> tag determines an area of the page to be
a specified size. Anything between the start tag <FONT> and the end
tag </FONT> will be displayed according to the attributes in the
<FONT> tag. There are two ways to code the size attribute with the
<FONT> tag. The first way would be to add the SIZE=3 where 3 would be the number or size you want
your text to be displayed between 1 and 7. And this is coded with
the as <FONT SIZE=3>. The second way to code the <FONT> tag is to
use the plus or minus sign. <FONT SIZE=+1> would tell the browser
that the font size is 1 step larger than the basefont.
In my opinion the color
of the text is the most important part of creating a well designed
web page. The combination of your background and your text needs to
be well balanced and very easy to read. If that is not the case you
will probably lose visitors to your site. My personal opinion is
that in most cases a dark background does not do a page justice.
There are exceptions but most I have viewed with dark background and
light text are not impressive. Also a white background in my opinion
for some people is extremely hard to read. I recommend in most cases
to use a very light, soothing background with colored text that
compliments the background. Another thing to remember is that quite
often people think that using a different shade of the same color as
your background makes good web design, in truth it makes poor web
design and the text becomes hard to read for many people. My opinions come from studying colors in
relation to disabilities, the two colors that are in my opinion
friend colors are blue and green. They are often called calming
colors and a clear sheet of plastic with one of these colors helps
the dyslexic person to concentrate on the pages and learn to read.
They are also known to help other disabilities. It is wise to plan
your background and text to compliment each other.
||The table on the left
is a list of the safe recommended RGB values for adding color to
your web page. You are not limited to having to use these
numbers, they are just the numbers deemed as safe. To create a
color from the list you would combine one value from each column
on the list. Using 000000 will produce black while using FFFFFF
will produce white.
The color attribute will be coded as <FONT COLOR="#000000"> and
the end tag would be </FONT>
If you wanted the entire document to
have the same color you could would add the attribute to the <BODY>
tag. The tag would look as follows:
||Although you might find a font that you would like
to use on your page, you have to realize that unless it is a font
that exists on the viewers computer they are not going to see the
font and their computer will most likely convert it to a font
supplied on that computer. The face attribute would be added
to the <FONT> tag as follows:
<FONT FACE ="Times New Roman"> and would end with </FONT>
This attribute can also be added to the <BASEFONT> tag.
Putting all three attributes together in one tag would be done as
<FONT FACE="Times New Roman" COLOR="#000000" SIZE=4>
Images are used to enhance your page. Adding color and scenery to a
page can make it more appealing to the viewers. But you don't want to
overdo the images because they can also take away from your page and chase
people away. Images are displayed on a page using the <IMG> tag and SRC attribute. Below are samples of how to use the <IMG> tag and SRC
To display an image that is present within the same folder as your
To display an image that is in a sub folder from the document you are
To display an image that is in another site. Please do note that in
order to do this you must get the permission of the website owner to
hotlink to an image within their site. If you do not get the permission to
hotlink from their site you will be stealing bandwidth and this makes you
a thief. Please ALWAYS get permission of the owner to hotlink from their
The best way to explain the other attributes for the <IMG> tag is to
display them with a graphic. Below you will find samples of the other
attributes, the flags default height is 50 and width is 68.
With this I adjusted the width to 100 the code for the above display is
<IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif" width="100" height="50">
The above image has the height enlarged to 75 the code for this display
is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif" width="68" height="75">
The above image has been given a border thickness of 10 the code for
this display will be <IMG border="10" SRC="images/cf2.gif">
This image has been
aligned to the left. The code used for this is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif"
align="left">. Do notice how each line of the text is being displayed
beside the image. This is not always the case when displaying images on a
page. With some coding only one line of text would be displayed beside the
This graphic has
been aligned to the right. The code used for this is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif"
align="right">. Again you will see that the lines of text are being
displayed beside the image. This is another in which the alignment allows
for the lines text to be displayed beside the image.
This image has been
aligned to the top. The code used for this is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif"
align="top">. Now what the alignment has done is the first line of text is
aligned to the top of the image. Any other lines after that are below the
This image has been
aligned to the middle. The code used for this is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif"
align="middle">. The first line of text has been placed in the
middle of the height of the image and all other lines of text are below
This image has been
aligned to the bottom. The code used for this is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif"
align="bottom">. The first line of text has been placed at the
bottom of the height of the image and all other lines of text are below
image has been aligned to the left and given horizontal spacing of 10. The
code used for this is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif" align="left" hspace="10">
Notice the space between the image and the text, this is what the
horizontal spacing does to the graphic. This would help with an image that
is not transparent.
This image has been aligned to the left and given the vertical spacing
of 10. The code used for this is <IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif" align="left"
hspace="10"> Notice the space between the image and the vertical space
from the text. The vertical spacing leaves a specific amount of space
between the image and the text around the image. This would come in handy
especially with a graphic that is not transparent. The text and the image
would not look like they run into each other.
Another attribute that can be used with the <IMG> tag and SRC attribute
is the ALT attribute. This is where you can place text onto the graphic.
When your page is displayed on a website, if someone places their mouse on
top of the image a message can be displayed. This is done with the
following code. Notice I also added the hspace and vspace.
<IMG SRC="images/cf2.gif" align="left" hspace="10" vspace="10"
alt="This is a message on an image">
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is simply an address of a document on
the internet. It's structure is made up of four parts, protocols, host
name, folder name and file name.
Protocol = http://
Host Name = www.askmaggymae.com
Folder Name - there is not always a folder name present in the URL. It
would depend on if you sorted your files into folders. With AMM almost all
pages are within the main web, then I created folders for the images,
downloads and music for the site. Another thing to consider is there may
be more than one folder name in the URL. Because AMM uses so many graphics
due to screenshots, the folder holding the images has subfolders making it
easier for me to find a graphic if I need it.
File Name = the name of the file you want to display with the link.
Putting these together you would get:
That link would provide the path for the banner which is displayed on
all of the pages in the AMM website. It consists of the protocol
(http://), the host name (www.askmaggymae.com), the folder name (/images)
and the file name (/AMMbanner.gif)
But when you are coding your page the above is not enough to tell the
browser what it is supposed to do with that line. Linking also needs a tag
and attribute. The tag for linking is the <A> tag and the attribute is
HREF and finally the end tag is </A>.
There are several ways to create links, below will show you each of
If you are linking to another page within your own web, and the page
you are linking to is within the same folder your link would appear as
<A HREF="newpage.htm">Text to display the link</A>
If you are linking to another page within your web and it is in a
subfolder of the folder your page you are working with is your link would
appear as follows:
<A HREF="foldername/newpage.htm">Text to display the link</A>
If you are linking to another page within your web but the page you are
working on is within a subfolder and the page you want to link to is in
another subfolder (there is no direct link) then your link would appear as
<A HREF="../foldername/filename.htm">Text to display the link</A>
The ../ is telling the browser to go up one level (or up one folder)
then the folder name and filename. There could end up being more than one
of these depending on the folders. Now with any of the above, you could
just use the full path to the page that you wish to link to.
If you are linking to a page that is not within your web, but on the
internet at another site your link would appear as follows:
<A HREF="http://www.websitename.com">Text to display the link</A>
You could also add a folder name and file name if it was necessary.
You can also link to a certain area within a page. This type of link
would use the NAME attribute. <A NAME="MARK"> would create what is called
an anchor that is named MARK. Placing this on your page just before the
area you want to link to. If you are linking to this from another page
your link would be coded as: <A HREF="URLtothepage#MARK">Text to
display</A> and if the link you are creating is within the same page as
the anchor then your link would be coded as" <A HREF="#MARK">Text to
display</A>. This is a very handy tool if you have pages that are very
long. You can place an anchor in several places of the document and then
create a list of links like a table of contents where you can place each
link that will take the user to each anchor.
You can use an image as a link instead of using text. To place an image
instead of text you would use the following code:
<A HREF="http://askmaggymae.com"><IMG SRC="http://askmaggymae.com/images/AMMbanner.gif">
And finally you can create a link to an email address. To do this you
would use the mailto: protocol instead of the http: protocol. Your
link would look as follows: